Jat Plunder of Akbars Mausoleum at Sikandra in 1688

One of the most renowned rulers in Indian history, Akbar, passed away in the year 1605, and his final resting place is at Sikandra in Agra. The tomb is a remarkable example of Mughal architectural mastery.

Akbar's great grandson Aurangzeb implemented policies that reversed many of Akbar's practices of religious tolerance. Aurangzeb's rule was marked by numerous uprisings across the empire.

Akbar's tomb at Agra

Uprising of the Jats:

The Jats, primarily agriculturists residing in the regions of Mathura, faced oppression and mistreatment by imperial revenue collectors during Aurangzeb's rule.

Gokula's Rebellion (1669):

The first rebellion was led by Gokula, the zamindar of Tilpat in Mathura. Gokula assembled a large army of Jats, refusing to pay taxes. A battle ensued between Gokula and Abdun Nabi Khan, the faujdar of Mathura, resulting in Khan's death in May 1669. Gokula also looted the district of Sadabad.

The rebellion soon spread to Agra, prompting Aurangzeb to dispatch a strong force led by Radandaz Khan to quell the uprising. Hasan Ali Khan was sent to confront the rebels in the villages of Rewara, Chandarkha and Sarkhud. The villagers fiercely resisted using bows and muskets, but were eventually overpowered. Subsequently, Aurangzeb appointed Hasan Ali Khan as the new faujdar of Mathura.

The Jat revolt was ultimately crushed when Gokula Jat was captured by Hasan Ali Khan and his associate, Shaikh Razi-ud-din. Gokula was brought before Aurangzeb in Agra, where he faced a brutal fate as his limbs were severed one by one in the courtyard of Agra police office in 1670. Gokula's son was converted to Islam, while his daughter was married to a high-ranking slave of Aurangzeb.

After the defeat of the Jats, Aurangzeb ordered the destruction of the Keshav Rai temple in Mathura, originally constructed by Vir Singh Bundela, who had been hired by Jahangir to assassinate Abul Fazl. Afterwards, a grand mosque was constructed on the same site.

Raja Ram's Rebellion (1688):

During Aurangzeb's extended absence from Northern India and his prolonged stay in the Deccan, the Jats seized an opportunity to rebel once again. Led by Raja Ram, the zamindar of Sinsini, a rebellion erupted among the Jats in 1688.

Raja Ram successfully united his clan members and other supporters under his leadership. Agra became his main target, where he imposed fees on anyone passing through the area. Despite the efforts of Safi Khan, the governor of Agra, Raja Ram's attacks continued.

One of Raja Ram's daring attempts was to rob Akbar's tomb at Sikandra, which was repulsed by the faujdar of Sikandra, Mir Abul Fazl, after a fierce struggle. Raja Ram then retreated to Sinsini via Shikarpur and Ratanpur, looting both towns along the way.

In early 1686, the Turrani general Aghar Khan was en route from Kabul to join Aurangzeb at Bijapur. When his caravan reached Dholpur, Raja Ram's guerilla bands fell upon the unsuspecting troops of Aghar Khan, seizing bullocks, carts, horses, and even women. Aghar Khan lost his life while trying to pursue the rebels.

In May 1686, Aurangzeb dispatched his foster-brother Khan-i-Jahan Bahadur Kokaltash Zafar Jang, to suppress the Jat rebellion, but he was unsuccessful. Later that year, in December, Aurangzeb appointed his son Prince Azam Shah to take charge of the operations against the Jats. However, Azam Shah's progress was halted at Burhanpur when his father called him back to proceed to Golconda.

In December 1687, Aurangzeb decided to send Azam's son, Prince Bidar Bakht, to take over the command. Khan-i-Jahan was to remain as his adviser and chief officer. Before Bidar Bakht could arrive, Raja Ram continued his violent acts.

Early in 1688, Raja Ram attacked Mahabat Khan, who was on his way to Lahore and had set up camp near Sikandra. A fierce fight was followed in which Raja Ram was eventually defeated and forced to retreat.

Shaista Khan, Aurangzeb's uncle, was appointed as the governor of Agra. Muhammad Baqa, the deputy of Khan-i-Jahan, was tasked with administering Agra until Shaista Khan's arrival. However, Raja Ram reappeared at Sikandra in March 1688.

In Niccolao Manucci's words, "Already angered by the demands of the governors for revenue, a great number of the Jats assembled and marched to the mausoleum of Akbar. They began their pillage by breaking in the great gates of bronze which it had, robbing the valuable precious stones and plates of gold and silver, and destroying what they were not able to carry away. Dragging out the bones of Akbar, they threw them angrily into the fire and burnt them", avenging the death of Gokula.

According to Futuhat-i-Alamgiri, "the accursed rebel had appeared at Sikandra, plundered the tomb of Akbar situated there and had taken away all its carpets, gold and silver and had damaged its building also. Most of the graves and tombs, erected there, had also been razed to the ground."

Muhammad Baqa's failure to take action against Raja Ram led to Aurangzeb punishing him by reducing his mansab by 500 horses and Khan-i-Jahan Bahadur's by 1,000 horses.

Following the plundering of Sikandra, Raja Ram turned his attention towards the conflict between the Chauhan and Sekhawat clan of Rajputs. At the request of the Chauhans, he allied with them against the Sekhawats. The Sekhawats, in turn, sought help from the Mughal faujdar of Mewat. Raja Ram met his end when he was shot dead by a Mughal musketeer at Bijal in July 1688.


  1. Well researched article !!! Nice piece of work

  2. Very interesting read.

  3. Jaat Descendents of Bharatpur still have there caste as Sinsinwal, Few of those jaats settled in a Village in south delhi known as 'Katwaria Sarai'. Jaats continue to live in this urbanized village of South delhi. Bharatpur remained independent kingdom even during British rule. Greatest Jaat leader in history. Rajaram Sinsinwal

  4. Very well written and good research !

  5. What was the fucking point of destroying Akbar's Mausoleum and taking their anger out on Akbar. He was the only one who actually did so much for Hindus and Indian Culture and these fucking idiots can't even let him rest in peace. Brainless Motherfucking idiots.