The Historic Battle of Rakkasa-Tangadi (Talikota)

Rise of Aliya Rama Raya to the Throne of Vijayanagar:

As we all know, Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1530) was the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagar, otherwise known as the Karnata empire. Krishna Deva Raya was succeeded by his half-brother Achyuta Deva Raya (1530-1542). Achyuta Raya was followed by his minor son Kumara Venkatadri also known as Venkata I (1542) and Salakam Timma Raju, Achyuta's brother-in-law, became the child's regent. The queen mother Varadadevi Ammal wanted Rama and his brother Tirumala, close relations of the family, to be her son's ministers. But the regent Salakam Timma Raju disagreed this and tried to confine the two brothers as well as those who opposed his schemes. Rama and his two younger brothers, Tirumala and Venkatadri, escaped to Gutti. Meanwhile Salakam Timma Raju was ruling the Empire most tyrannically. Queen Varadadevi appealed to Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah of Bijapur (1535-1557) to secure the kingdom for her son, promising him immense riches. Ibrahim Adil Shah marched to Vijayanagar to help her, but on the way he was met by some emissaries of Timma Raju, who offered him lavish presents as the price of his retreat.

Flowers of Indus Valley - Battle of Talikota

Venkata's reign did not last more than half a year as he was assassinated along with his two uncles (the brothers of Achyuta Raya; one of them was Ranga, the father of Sadashiva) at the instigation of Timma Raju, who wanted to secure the throne for himself. The young prince Sadashiva managed to escape to the fort of Gutti. Timma Raju thus seized the throne of Vijayanagara. The nobles, unable to suffer his tyranny, invited Rama to assume the administration of affairs. After their flight from the capital, Rama and his brothers had prepared a large army and captured the forts of Gutti, Penukonda, Adoni, Gandikota and Kurnool. Salakam Timma Raju requested the assistance of Ibrahim Adil Shah and offered him the throne of Vijayanagara. Rama and the confederate nobles sent a message to Timma Raju assuring him of their future allegiance if he would send away Ibrahim Adil Shah back to his own dominions. Timma Raju, thinking he had now no further use for his allies, gave rich presents to Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah and also settled his army. Ibrahim Adil Shah had not yet recrossed the river Krishna, Rama and the confederates hurried to Vijayanagara and put Salakam Timma Raju to death. After this, the nobles handed over the kingdom to Rama. Rama rescued the young prince Sadashiva (1542-1569), who had survived the Tuluva family, and placed him on the throne of his ancestors, and himself became his regent.

Rama Raya had rose into prominence during the reign of Krishnadeva Raya. Here's an account of Rama Raya's elevation in life given by the anonymous author of The History of Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah: When Sultan Quli Qutub Shah (1518-1543) captured some districts of Vijayanagar, he deputed Rama, a Hindu of noble family, to the charge of the districts. Three years afterwards Rama was expelled by some Adil Shahi troops and he fled to the court of Sultan Quli Qutub Shah, who considering Rama's flight a proof of his cowardice, ordered him to quit the court. Rama, thus disgraced, took route to Vijayanagar and entered the service of Krishnadeva Raya, who, shortly afterwards, forming a high opinion of him, gave him his daughter Tirumalambika in marriage. Hence Rama Raya was often called by the name 'Aliya', which means 'son-in-law' in Kannada language.

Rama Raya first assumed the office of protector, and subsequently usurped the throne, taking pains to strengthen his power by the reduction of many troublesome neighbors, and the elevation of his own adherents and relatives. Sadashiva was only the nominal ruler while the whole power of the kingdom was in the hands of Rama Raya (1542-1565) and his two brothers. When the king Sadashiva attained maturity, Rama Raya confined him in prison. C. Frederick says that Sadashiva, the rightful king, was shown to his subjects only once a year. Rama Raya subdued all countries as far as Ceylon.

Rama Raya and the Deccan Sultans:

Introduction: The Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagara and the Muslim kingdom of Bahmani emerged in the South India during the later years of the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq. By 1490, the Bahmani kingdom broke up into five independent states. These five Sultanates of South India, otherwise known as the Deccan Sultanates, were: the Nizam Shahis of Ahmednagar (in Maharashtra), the Adil Shahis of Bijapur (in Karnataka), the Qutub Shahis of Golconda (in Telangana), the Barid Shahis of Bidar (in Karnataka) and the Imad Shahis of Berar (in Maharashtra). The Sultans were constantly at war with each other.

Sayed Ali Tabatabai states that Rama Raya was distinguished above all the kings of Vijayanagar for the strength of his army and for his power, and was puffed up with pride owing to the extent of his dominions. He possessed the whole of the kingdom of Vijayanagar with its sixty sea-ports (Burhan-i-Ma'asir). He interfered in the disputes of the Deccani kings; and used to ally himself now with one, at a later time with another, to wage war against the rest. At first, he allied with Ahmednagar against Bijapur, but later he changed sides, and allied with Bijapur against Ahmednagar. In this way he acquired possession of many of their districts. During the twenty three years of his rule, he successively made war against all the Sultans of the Deccan, and always returned home victorious. It all started on the very day of Sadashiva Raya's coronation. When Ibrahim Adil Shah heard about the rebellion against Salakam Timma Raju and the subsequent accession of Sadashiva, he dispatched his minister Asad Khan to reduce the fort of Adoni. Rama Raya sent his brother Venkatadri with a strong force to relieve the fort. Venkatadri was defeated and all his treasures, family and elephants came to the possession of Asad Khan. Rama Raya, suspecting that Ibrahim Adil Shah had been induced to make war by some zamindars of Adoni, made peace with Ibrahim Adil Shah and rescued Venkatadri's family and obtained release of prisoners.

Some time after this Ibrahim Adil Shah, invited by Burhan Nizam Shah (1508-1553) of Ahmednagar, entered into a confederacy against Ali Barid Shah (1542-1580) of Bidar and Vijayanagara. It was agreed that Burhan Nizam Shah should attack Bidar, leaving Ibrahim Adil Shah unmolested in any attack he might choose to make on Vijayanagara. When Burhan Nizam Shah attacked Bidar, Ali Barid fled to Bijapur unaware of this secret treaty. Ali Barid was seized and confined at Bijapur. (Ali Barid was later released on the request of Jamshed). Ibrahim Adil Shah then marched to the southward, where he succeeded in adding greatly to his territories by conquests from Vijayanagara. Rama Raya perhaps suspected that the real promoter of the war waged by Adil Shah was the Sultan of Ahmednagar. He therefore, marched against Burhan Nizam Shah, but in order to reach Ahmednagar, he had to pass through the states of Golconda and Bidar. He therefore divided his army into three divisions: Tirumala was sent against Bidar; Hande Hanumappa Nayidu against Ahmednagar, while he himself attacked Sultan Jamshed Qutub Shah (1543-1550) of Golconda. In this battle that took place in 1543, the three Sultans were defeated and they fled from the battle field. Burhan Nizam Shah was made prisoner and the city of Ahmednagar was sacked. Burhan Nizam Shah was released on the condition to abandon the alliance with Ibrahim Adil Shah.

Flowers of Indus Valley - Battle of Talikota

Some time after this campaign, Burhan Nizam Shah sent an ambassador to the court of Jamshed to induce him to form an alliance with Rama Raya against Bijapur. Nizam Shah wanted to recover the five districts of Solapur (When Bibi Mariam, the sister of Ismail Adil Shah (1510-1534), ie, the father of Ibrahim, was married to Burhan Nizam Shah, Asad Khan had promised in his master's name to give Solapur with its five districts as dowry with his sister; but it was not carried out). Rama Raya attacked Bijapur territories on the South, Jamshed on the East, while Nizam Shah with his own army and the troops of Ali Barid on the North-East. The kingdom of Bijapur was thus attacked simultaneously by three powerful armies. Jamshed marched to Kakny, where he built a strong fort and advanced towards Etgir. Rama Raya deputed his brother Venkatadri to reduce the fort of Raichur. Ibrahim Adil Shah, by the advice of Asad Khan, concluded peace with Burhan Nizam Shah by surrendering the five districts of Solapur. Asad Khan also recommended that separate overtures should be made to Rama Raya, offering him presents to propitiate his friendship. Afterwards Asad Khan marched against Jamshed and retook the districts of Bijapur. (Ibrahim Adil Shah afterwards recovered Solapur.)

Next year, Rama Raya induced Burhan Nizam Shah to march against Bijapur for the purpose of reducing Gulbarga. In this campaign, the Nizam's army was defeated with heavy loss.

Ibrahim Adil Shah after this victory growing haughty and imperious, behaved tyrannically towards his own subjects, putting to death some of his best officers. A party of nobles desired of substituting him with Prince Abdulla, the king's younger brother. When this plot was discovered by Ibrahim, Prince Abdulla made his escape to Goa where he sought an asylum with the Portuguese. Burhan Nizam Shah and Jamshed also offered him support for dethroning Ibrahim. About that time died Asad Khan, the able minister of Ibrahim Adil Shah (1549). In this state of affairs, the confederates retreated to their own dominions. (Prince Abdulla was later defeated by Rama Raya's forces, who came for the aid of Ibrahim Adil Shah, and was taken prisoner).

Soon after the death of Asad Khan, Burhan Nizam Shah renewed his alliance with Rama Raya against Bijapur. Rama Raya recommended him to attack the fortress of Kalyani, which belonged to the Bidar Sultan Ali Barid, since he preferred the alliance of Ibrahim Adil Shah to his. Burhan Nizam Shah accordingly marched towards Kalyani and effectually blockaded it. At the request of Ali Barid, Ibrahim Adil Shah marched to relieve it. This time the Bijapur forces were defeated and Sadasiva Nayaka, the general of Rama Raya, captured the fortress of Kalyani. (Sadasiva Nayaka was later severely defeated by the Ahmadnagar army and Kalyani was recovered by Nizam Shah).

Towards the end of Jamshed's reign, his distemper increased, he put many persons to death on the most trivial occasion. Jamshed's younger brother Prince Ibrahim fled to Bidar. Taking advantage of the Prince's situation Ali Barid made an attempt to seize his properties and elephants. Prince Ibrahim then claimed the friendship of Rama Raya. He was well received by Rama Raya whose power had at that time considerably increased by the imprisonment of Sadasiva Raya. In 1550, when Jamshed died, the nobles of the court invited Ibrahim to court. Rama Raya gave a force under his brother Venkatadri for Ibrahim's support. After reaching Golconda Ibrahim Qutub Shah (1550-1580) ascended the throne of Golconda.

Flowers of Indus Valley - Battle of Talikota

By the end of 1551, Ibrahim Adil Shah made preparations for retaking the fortress of Kalyani. On receiving information of this, Burhan Nizam Shah invited Rama Raya for renewing their attack on Bijapur, and it was resolved that Rama Raya should take Raichur and Mudgal; and Solapur and Gulbarga should be conquered for Nizam Shah. After taking Raichur and Mudgal, Rama Raya returned to Vijayanagara leaving a force under Venkatadri for the aid of Nizam Shah. Burhan Nizam Shah took Solapur in a short time and returned to Ahmednagar. Burhan Nizam Shah died shortly after this (1553) and was succeeded by his son Hussein Nizam Shah (1553-1565).

Flowers of Indus Valley - Battle of Talikota

In the year 1555, Ibrahim Qutub Shah offered his alliance to Hussein Nizam Shah for taking Gulburga for Nizam Shah and Etgir for Qutub Shah. The fort of Gulburga was very strong and breaches continued for a whole month, and Ibrahim Adil Shah, having no more strength to fight, sent an ambassador to Rama Raya, who immediately marched with his army for the aid of the Bijapur Sultan. On the way he wrote to Ibrahim Qutub Shah advising him "to relinquish the offensive alliance which he has formed, and by returning peaceably to his capital, show a friendly disposition towards both parties who will afterwards conclude a peace, and put an end to this long protracted war". He also heard that Tirumala, with a body of cavalry, accompanied by some of the Bijapur troops, had laid waste a considerable part of the Pangal district. Ibrahim Qutub Shah accordingly left Gulburga with his army in the middle of the night. Unable to cope singly with the Adil Shahi troops, Hussein Nizam Shah also left Gulburga for Ahmednagar.

Ibrahim Adil Shah made plans to retake Solapur and concluded a treaty with Rama Raya. Ibrahim Adil Shah invited into his service Saif Ain-ul-Mulk, commander-in-chief of the late Burhan Nizam Shah, who had taken refuge in Berar from the oppression of Hussein Nizam Shah. It was agreed between them, that on Ali Nizam Shah, brother of Hussein, being seated on the throne of Ahmednagar, the forts of Kalyani and Solapur should be surrendered to Bijapur. Ibrahim Adil Shah marched from Bijapur to support Prince Ali and both armies met at Solapur. In the mean time, Hussein Nizam Shah formed an alliance with Darya Imad Shah (1530-1562) of Berar, and receiving a reinforcement of seven thousand cavalry, moved to raise the siege of Solapur. Ibrahim Adil Shah had to retreat since suspicions regarding Saif Ain-ul-Mulk aroused in his mind. It was Rama Raya who helped Ibrahim Adil Shah to expel Ain-ul-Mulk from Bijapur, who had turned rebel. Rama Raya sent his brother Venkatadri with a considerable force and achieved victory over Ain-ul-Mulk, who then fled to the dominions of Hussein Nizam Shah where he was subsequently put to death.

In 1557, Ibrahim Adil Shah died and was succeeded by his son Ali (1557-1580). Ali Adil Shah entered into a close alliance with Rama Raya. Hussein Nizam Shah, taking advantage of the his minority, made war upon Bijapur. About this time Rama Raya had lost one of his sons. Ali Adil Shah himself went to Vijayanagara and offered his condolence on that melancholy occasion, in the hope of recovering the forts sustained by his father ie, Kalyani and Solapur. The wife of Rama Raya on this occasion adopted Ali as her son.

Battle of Talikota

1st Siege of Ahmednagar: In the year 1558, Rama Raya and Ibrahim Qutub Shah were invited by Ali Adil Shah to invade Ahmednagar as the Nizam Shah refused the surrender of the two forts. The united forces laid siege to Ahmednagar and plundered it. Unable to resist the united army, Hussein Nizam Shah escaped to Paithan. Ferishta records that during this campaign the Vijayanagara army committed great outrages at Ahmednagar; they insulted the Muslim women, destroyed the mosques, and disrespected the sacred Koran; and Ali Adil Shah was much offended, but as he had not the means of preventing it he pretended not to observe it. Ibrahim Qutub Shah, unwilling that Ali Adil Shah should add this fort to his dominions, entered into secret communications with Hussein Nizam Shah, informing that he was compelled to join the allies due to political necessity and he would do everything to induce them to abandon the war. When the rainy season was approaching Rama Raya decided to retreat, but Ali Adil Shah promised him the district of Indi if he would continue the siege of Ahmednagar for a month longer. Rama Raya consented, and the siege was prosecuted with redoubled vigour. Ibrahim Qutub Shah deputed his minister Mustafa Khan to persuade Rama Raya to raise the siege. Mustafa Khan made use of every argument he could devise in order to gain his end: scarcity of provisions in the camp, the approach of the rainy season, the advance of the kings of Gujarat and Burhanpur, who had entered into an alliance with Hussein Nizam Shah, were all adduced as reasons for that measure. He also engaged secretly, on the part of the King to cede the district of Kondapalli to Rama Raya, if he would return to his capital. Rama Raya immediately consented to retreat and sent a message to Ali Adil Shah to that effect. Hussein Nizam Shah however sent an ambassador to Rama Raya and sued for peace. As per the terms of the treaty, the fort of Kalyani was surrendered to Ali Adil Shah, and  Jahangir Khan, who commanded the troops of Darya Imad Shah, was put to death. It was also one of the terms of the treaty that Hussein Nizam Shah should pay a visit to Rama Raya and receive a pan (an aromatic leaf) from his hands. Ferishta gives an account of this: When Nizam Shah reached the camp of Rama Raya, who took him to his tent by the hand. Hussein Nizam Shah, who possessed great pride, called for a basin and ewer and washed his hands, as if they had been polluted by the touch of Rama Raya. Rama Raya said in his own language, "If he were not my guest I would cut off his hands and hang them round his neck"; then calling for water, he also washed".

2nd Siege of Ahmednagar: Soon after this (1562), Hussein Nizam Shah gave his daughter Bibi Jamalli in marriage to Ibrahim Qutub Shah and entered into an alliance with him for recapturing the fort of Kalyani, that he had just surrendered. On receiving this intelligence, Ali Adil Shah sought aid from Rama Raya, who marched with his army for his support. Ali Barid Shah and Burhan Imad Shah (1562-1574) of Berar also joined them and the whole army marched towards Ahmednagar. On the approach of the allies, Ibrahim Qutub Shah received intimation that, taking advantage of his absence, Rama Raya had detached his brother Venkatadri to invade his southern districts. Ibrahim Qutub Shah consulted with Hussein Nizam Shah and they raised the siege of Kalyani, and returned to their respective capitals. Rama Raya and Ali Adil Shah pursued Hussein Nizam Shah to Ahmednagar and again laid waste of the country, Nizam Shah left Ahmednagar and retired to Junnar. Ali Adil Shah was sure that if Solapur was captured, Rama Raya would probably keep it for himself. So he thought it would be better to postpone the reduction of Solapur to a later time, and persuaded Rama Raya to reduce Naldurg. The allies fortified that place and on his return, Rama Raya plundered some of the Bijapur districts. Ali Adil Shah was compelled to cede the districts of Etgir and Bagrakot to him. Meanwhile at Golconda, Ibrahim Qutub Shah sued for peace by delivering the forts of Ganpura and Pangal to Rama Raya.

In those days, the forts of Golconda were garrisoned by Hindu soldiers knows as the Naigwaris. Jagdev Rao, chief of the Naigwaris, rebelled against Ibrahim Qutub Shah with the support of Rama Raya. Ibrahim Qutub Shah sent an army under Mustafa Khan and defeated Jagdev, who again fled to Vijayanagar. Jagdev Rao assisted Rama Raya in his previous campaign against Ibrahim Qutub Shah. Ibrahim now decided to reduce the power of the Naigwaris, who all turned disloyal. Suria Rao, the commander of the Naigwaris in the fort of Golconda, learning the Sultan's intentions, made a plot to seize the treasury and put all the Muslims to sword, when the king will go out to hunt. Rama Raya consented to send a force for their aid. When the hunting season came Ibrahim Qutub Shah left Golconda and pitched his camp on the plain. As soon as he had quit the fort, the gates were closed and the Naigwaris began to attack the Muslims. Two of the latter made their escape and informed the king of the circumstance, who ordered the troops with him to invest the fort. The mutineers demanded the surrender of Mustafa Khan. Ibrahim refused the demand of the Naigwaris, who after some days, with Suria Rao at their head, were compelled to give in; on which occasion all of them were executed.

The Battle of Talikota, also known as Raksas-Tagdi (25 Jan 1565):

The Deccan Sultans now took into consideration the danger which threatened them by the frequent interference of Rama Raya. During the late wars he had not only laid waste the country of Hussein Nizam Shah, and polluted the masjids by appropriating them to the use of his cattle and of his soldiers, but on his return he had plundered the districts of both his allies also. The first idea of such an alliance came from Ali Adil Shah, who desired to humble the pride of Rama Raya. His counselors represented that it can be effected only by the union of all the Sultans of Deccan as the revenues of Rama Raya amounted to an immense sum which enabled him to maintain his powerful army. Ali Adil Shah therefore sent an envoy Ibrahim Qutub Shah at Golconda, who eagerly agreed to his proposal. Ibrahim Qutub Shah deputed his minister Mustafa Khan, to the court of Hussein Nizam Shah and from thence directed him to proceed to the court of Ali Adil Shah, to effect a reconciliation between them, and it was resolved that Hussein Nizam Shah should give his daughter Chand Bibi in marriage to Ali Adil Shah and with her the fort of Solapur as her dowry. Hudia Sultana, Ali's sister, was married to Prince Murtaza, the eldest son of Hussein Nizam Shah. Ali Barid Shah also joined them.

Ali Adil Shah sent an embassy to Rama Raya demanding the surrender of districts of Etgir, Bagrakot, Raichur and Mudgal, which had been wrested from him at different occasions. Rama Raya expelled the ambassador with disgrace from his court. The four Sultans hastened their preparations for war and reached Talikota; the armies reached near North bank of the river Krishna. Rama Raya, summoned all his dependents and rajas from the banks of Krishna, as far as the island of Ceylon and brought together a force consisting of one hundred thousand horse and three hundred thousand infantry, and marched to oppose the confederates. He sent his brothers Tirumala and Venkatadri to occupy the South bank of Krishna. Adopting a stratagem, the fort Sultans with their army managed to cross the river.

Next day both armies met some miles South of Krishna, in the neighborhood of the two villages Raksas and Tagdi. Rama Raya was dining when news suddenly came that the enemy was approaching. He entrusted his younger brother Venkatadri to oppose Ali Adil Shah on the left; his other brother Tirumala to oppose Ibrahim Qutub Shah and Ali Barid Shah on the right; while he himself commanded the center wing against Hussein Nizam Shah. Rama Raya, the king of Vijayanagar, was a very old man then; according to Ferishta, he was seventy years old; as per the Portuguese historians Diogo de Couto and Faria e Sousa, he was of ninety-six, but as brave as a man of thirty. He mounted a litter in spite of the protests of his officers who wished him to be on horseback as much safer; but he said, there was no occasion for taking precaution against children, who would certainly fly on the first charge. He directed his soldiers to endeavor to take Ibrahim Qutub Shah and Ali Adil Shah prisoners, in order that he might keep them in iron cages during the rest of their lives; and if possible, to bring him the head of Hussein Nizam Shah.

Venkatadri first attacked the Muslims; he fought valiantly and inflicted great loss on his enemies. Tirumala and his son Raghunatha slew hundred of Muslims and Ibrahim Qutub Shah was beaten back. However, they had to finally leave the battle field since they were dangerously wounded. C. Frederick says that Tirumala lost one of his eyes. Raghunatha might have died due to injuries sustained from the battle. When this news reached Rama Raya, he remounted his horse, and shouting several times Garuda! Garuda! (who was his idol in battles), with his men charged on the allies. The wings commanded by the Sultans of Bijapur, Golconda and Bidar, soon broke before the indomitable fury of the old king. Then the Hindu army charged straight to the center of the allied army and the Nizam's army retreated back.

Ali Adil Shah and Hussein Nizam Shah collected their dispersed troops and were back again in the battle field. There were a line of archers in Nizam Shah's troop, who concealed the artillery lay behind them. As the Hindus advanced, the heavy battery was opened upon them and they retreated in confusion with great loss. The old man now dismounted from his elephant and seating himself on a rich throne set with jewels, under a canopy of crimson velvet, embroidered with gold and adorned with fringes of pearls, caused his treasurer to place heaps of money around him that he might confer rewards on such of his soldiers as merited the distinction. rich ornaments of gold and jewels were also placed before him for the same purpose. Inspired by this generosity, the Hindus charged the right and left wings of the allies with such vigour that they were thrown into temporary disorder, and Ali Adil Shah and Ibrahim Qutub Shah even prepared for retreat. Thus Rama Raya had almost defeated his enemies.

The Fall of Rama Raya:

Flowers of Indus Valley - Battle of Talikota

During this time, two Muslim generals, who served under Rama Raya, turned traitors; they betrayed their king and went over with their troops towards the allies. As C. Frederick says, "Among the captains of his numerous army had two famous Moors (Muslim), each of whom commanded over seventy or eighty thousand men. These two captains being of the same religion with the four Moorish kings, treacherously combined with them to betray their own sovereign. Accordingly, when the king of Vijayanagar, despising the power of his enemies, boldly faced them in the field, the battle had scarcely lasted four hours, when the two treacherous captains, in the very heat of the battle, turned with their followers against their own sovereign, and threw his army into such disorder that it broke and fled in the utmost confusion". The desertion of these generals threw the division of Rama Raya into chaotic confusion, in the course of which he himself was wounded. On seeing this, the old Sovereign again mounted his litter to retreat; but the bearers, panic-stricken at the approach of a furious elephant of the Ahmednagar army, ran away abandoning their king. Rama Raya then attempted to make his escape on horse; but just when he was dismounting from the litter he was overtaken by the elephant, who seized him in his trunk. Rama Raya was made prisoner and carried to Rumi Khan, the general of Hussein Nizam Shah. Rumi Khan brought him before Hussein Nizam Shah, who ordered his head to be instantly cut off.

When the news of Rama Raya's capture reached Ali Adil Shah, he hastened to the spot to release him, but his friend, the king, whom he had called Father, was slain already. When Ali Adil Shah and Ibrahim Qutub Shah became aware of the death of Rama Raya, who was in truth, their support and stay, they bitterly repented of having entered into the alliance with Hussein Nizam Shah. The head of Rama Raya was placed on a spear. When the Hindus saw this, they fled in disorder towards the capital, who were pursued and slain by the Muslims. The Sultans entered Vijayanagar with great triumph; and remained there for nearly six months. Their troops penetrated to Vijayanagar, which they plundered, raised the chief buildings to the ground, and committed every species of excess. They captured all the riches, elephants, ornaments, camels, arms and armor everything. The plunder was so great that every man in the allied army became rich in gold, jewels, tents, arms, horses and slaves, the kings permitting every person to retain what he acquired, reserving the elephants only for their own use. The kingdom of Vijayanagara has never recovered its ancient splendor; the city itself was so destroyed, that it is now totally in ruins! One can find the ruins of Vijayanagara empire in the village of Hampi in the Bellary district of Karnataka. What happened to Venkatadri? According to Ceasar Frederick, only Tirumala escaped the battle, but from Ferishta we are informed that Venkadadri also had fled to a distant fortress. Ferishta says that Venkatadri, who escaped to a distant fortress, sent humble entreaties to the kings, to whom he agreed to restore the places which his brother had wrested from them; and the victors being satisfied returned to their respective dominions.


A king of Vijayanagar was called by the name "Raya".

Ferishta records that Rama Raya entertained three thousand of foreign troops in his army and he placed the Koran before them when they came to pay their respects. "Ramraj, the Hindu Prince of Vijayanagar, entertained three thousand of them; and in order to reconcile them to the act of making obeisance to him, he caused a Koran to be placed before him when they came to pay their respects; which enabled them to do so without a breach of the ordinances of their religion".

Rama Raya had five sons and they were: Krishnaraya or Krishnapa, Peda Timmaraja, Konda, Timma and Sriranga Raya.

Tirumala had also married a daughter of Krishnadeva Raya.


The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagar Vol I by Henry Heras

History of the Rise of Mahommedan Power in India by Ferishta

The voyage and trauaile of M. Caesar Frederick, merchant of Venice, into the East India, the Indies, and beyond the Indies

Da Asia de João de Barros e de Diogo de Couto Volume 8


  1. Hii Anjana
    Beautiful write up, It was a wonderful, u just pour history on ur page .... visiting after almost 2yrs, the layout attracted me ..thanks for sharing such a wonderful piece of history.. will visit more often now
    Have a wonderful day ahead :)

  2. Warfare is a fascinating subject. Despite the dubious morality of using violence to achieve personal or political aims. It remains that conflict has been used to do just that throughout recorded history.

    Your article is very well done, a good read.

  3. Could you please provide the source for the Ali Adil Shahi painting as well as the others. I'd like to find the original museums/collections they're held in. Thanks

  4. The content everything is Okay, but the portraits/images of princess not relevant to this subject or history