Fall of Tipu Sultan's Empire, the Sultanate Khudadad

Tipu Sultan named his kingdom the Sultanate-i-Khudadad. Following the capture of Srirangapatna on May 4, 1799, the British seized Tipu's family and his valuable treasures.

Fateh Hyder, the eldest son of Tipu Sultan, was encamped near the Karighatta Hill when he received news of his father's demise. At the time, he was accompanied by a mere 50-60 native officers and around 120 French troops under Monsieur Chapuy.


On May 6, the Commissioners dispatched letters to Fateh Hyder, Mir Qamar-ud-din (Tipu's Senior Military Commander) and Purnaiya (Tipu's Chief Financial Minister), urging them to surrender immediately. General Harris, in a letter to Lord Wellesley, expressed his belief that they would comply shortly, given that their families were still within the fort. 

Shortly thereafter, Qamar-ud-din, Ali Raza Khan (a Vakeel of Tipu), and Purnaiya surrendered to General Harris.

Surrender of Fateh Hyder:

Kirmani's narrative paints a vivid picture of the tense situation that Fateh Hyder found himself in. Fateh Hyder was faced with a difficult decision when he saw fear, distress, and despair among his followers. The British General and his officers were using conciliatory language, hinting at the possibility of placing him on the throne. Even though his loyal officers such as Malik Jahan Khan (Dhondia Wagh), Syed Nasir Ali Mir Miran, and other Asofs, tried to persuade him to continue the war, Fateh Hyder ultimately chose to surrender.

These officers reminded Fateh Hyder that Tipu Sultan had devoted his life to the will of God, but his territories, cities, and forts were still under their control. Furthermore, his army, along with its artillery and stores, was ready for battle. They believed that if there was any desire to reconquer the country, now was the time to act. They assured him that they were prepared to sacrifice their lives for his cause.

"This descendant of Hyder, however, notwithstanding his constitutional or hereditary bravery, at the suggestion of Purnaiya and the advice also of other traitors of the Sultan's court, (every one of whom thinking of his wife and family, abandoned his duty and loyalty) was deceived, and acted in conformity to their wishes, at once rejected the prayers of his well wishers, and consequently washing his hands of kingly power and dominion, he proceeded to meet and confer with General Harris," records Kirmani.

On 13 May, Fateh Hyder made the decision to surrender himself to General Harris. "Fateh Hyder came to the north bank of the river from beyond the French Rocks, where he had been since the fall of Srirangapatna....Captain Malcolm went to meet Fateh Hyder; he found him under a common tent, with about 50-60 Sirdars, who attended him to head-quarters. Fateh Hyder was much depressed and affected, no doubt, by the change of his fortunes," noted Major Allan.

The surrender of Fateh Hyder marked the end of the 38-year Muslim rule in Mysore, a dynasty consisting of only two rulers: Nawab Hyder Ali Khan and his son Tipu Sultan.

Tipu's four eldest sons were transferred to Vellore by 18 June.

On June 30, the British coronated a five-year-old descendant of the Wodeyar family, as the ruler of Mysore, who was later known as Mummudi Krishnaraja Wodeyar or Krishnaraja Wodeyar III. Purnaiya was appointed as his Diwan, or chief minister.


Kirmani's account reveals that Malik Jahan Khan, famously known as Dhondia Wagh, was set free by the British following the fall of Tipu Sultan. Subsequently, he pledged his allegiance to Fateh Hyder and joined his service.